The paramis as a heuristic tool: Sometime during my second reading I wrote the following at the top of the treatise: “The paramis are a heuristic tool to think about how a person needs to be to 1) best help himself, 2) best help others, 3) perfect samadhi and paññā.” They are a training guide, almost a kind of mnemonic device, for inculcating certain personality traits. As such, they are in no way absolute. That is, the list of ten we have in this treatise could have been twelve or nine or, as they are in the Mahayana tradition, six. This is important to keep in mind, as it will enable one to be flexible in how one appraises one’s own character and tries to effect changes.
The meaning of “parami”: Usually the meaning of the word is given as “perfection,” but Dhammapala offers some interesting wrinkles on this. He says, first, that “bodhisattvas, the great beings, are supreme (parama), since they are the highest of beings by reason of their distinguished qualities…” So the word can also refer to supremacy or primacy. Furthermore, the paramis are the character or conduct of the bodhisattva, of one who is supreme. We could therefore alternately translate the word as “excellence,” so long as we think of excellence in an active sense–as a verb instead of a noun. Thus when you act with excellence or from excellence, you demonstrate the paramis.
Their sequence: In this text and others it’s suggested one performs or perfects the paramis in a sequence. I am not convinced of this. It seems to me the path of development is holistic, with every attribute activating, strengthening and reinforcing, every other one. I’m sure there’s some hard science on this somewhere, but my suspicion is that greater renunciation (self-restraint or discipline) is positively correlated with higher levels of mental energy, or more generally ethical behavior. Some paramis may be easier to perform initially, but that does not mean one will necessarily perfect them in any particular order; this would seem to be determined in great part by native disposition. One should note, too, that throughout the course of the treatise compassion and skillful means are placed first as the guiding lights of all the paramis. They are, in effect, paramis themselves, though not called such. What is compassion but loving-kindness in the general, affective sense, and what is skillful means but wisdom in action? There is lots to say about these categories: how they overlap and interplay, and whether or not this is even the best list. For remember, this is not the only list–the bhumis in Tibetan Buddhism and the Avatamsaka Sutra are different. I’ll need to look at this later, needless to say….
“All the paramis, without exception, have as their characteristic the benefiting of others; as their function, the rendering of help to others, or not vacillating; as their manifestation, the wish for the welfare of others, or Buddhahood; and as their proximate cause, great compassion, or compassion and skillful means.”
Analysis by five ways: The author proceeds to analyze the paramis by five ways. He describes 1) their perfection, or how they ideally manifest; 2) their characteristic, that is what is their fundamental attribute; 3) their function, or what they do; 4) their manifestation, i.e. what do they look like in practice; and 5) their proximate cause, that which allows them to unfold. See the attached table here: The Paramis
The Great Aspiration: Here Dhammapala ramps up the difficulty of the bodhisattva project to inhuman levels. He writes:
The condition of the paramis is, firstly, the great aspiration (abhinihara). This is the aspiration supported by the eight qualifications, which occurs thus: “Crossed I would cross, freed I would free, tamed I would tame, calmed I would calm, comforted I would comfort, attained to nibbana I would lead to nibbana, purified I would purify, enlightened I would enlighten!” This is the condition for all the paramis without exception.
Following this inspiring vow are the “eight qualifications,” and I’m sorry to inform you that none of us,not a single person on the planet, can be certain he or she possesses all eight. To say this is a problem is an understatement, so much so that this section of Dhammapala’s essay is likely to turn people off, depress them, or make them think something’s fishy about the whole thing. However, there is almost assuredly more here than meets the eye, and I do not think we should let ourselves be trapped by tradition–Buddhist or otherwise. My next post will be an essay devoted entirely to the problem of the Great Aspiration and the eight qualifications.